Target Trial Emulation
22 – 24 APRIL 2024

Bianca De Stavola, Michalis Katsoulis, and Andrea Aparicio Castro

This course is for anyone wishing to understand how comparisons of the effectiveness of alternative therapies or interventions can be performed using real world data (RWD) when adopting the framework of target trial emulation (TTE).

RWD are data on the everyday experiences of individuals that are collected through surveys, cohort studies, administrative and clinical.  These data are observational, as opposed to experimental. Because of this, using them to address causal questions such as those of comparative effectiveness raises many concerns and difficulties. In this course we will describe the main sources of bias affecting RWD, describe how TTE can address some of them, and discuss its application in group discussions and computer practicals (in Stata and R). We will devote time to demonstrate how to implement the data management as well as the analytical steps to estimate the intention-to-treatment and per-protocol effects of time-fixed and time-varying interventions.

To develop an understanding of the main challenges arising from using RWD in comparative effectiveness research and how to implement TTE to address at least some of them.

The course will consist of live lectures and practicals over three days. Participants are expected to be familiar with directed causal diagrams and regression models.





It is advisable that, before attending this course, participants attend both the on-demand  course  “Addressing Causal Questions using real work data: an Introduction” and  “Introduction to Causal Diagrams”


or equivalently be familiar  with the first 2 parts of the book by Hernán and Robins “Causal Inference: What If.” which is available here:


£45 for PhD Students and £90 for others